How to select IgG subclasses in developing anti-tumor therapeutic antibodies
Jifeng Yu, Yongping Song , and Wenzhi Tian. (2020). How to select IgG subclasses in developing anti-tumor therapeutic antibodies. Journal of Hematology & Oncology. 2020, 13, 45-54.
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The intact antibody of human immunoglobulin (IgG) is composed of the fragment for antigen binding (Fab) and the crystallizable fragment (Fc) for binding of Fcγ receptors. Among the four subclasses of human IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4), which differ in their constant regions, particularly in their hinges and CH2 domains, IgG1 has the highest FcγR-binding affinity, followed by IgG3, IgG2, and IgG4. As a result, different subclasses have different effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Fcγ receptors include six subtypes (FcγRI, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, FcγRIIC, FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIIB) which differ in cellular distribution, binding affinity to Fc, and the resulting biological activity. Therefore, when developing anti-tumor therapeutic antibodies, including single-targeted antibodies, bi-specific antibodies (BsAbs), and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), many factors, such as target biology, cellular distribution of the targets, the environments of particular tumor types, as well as the proposed mechanism of action (MOA), must be taken into consideration. This review outlines fundamental strategies that are required to select IgG subclasses in developing anti-tumor therapeutic antibodies.